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International Offshore Jurisdiction Review: Estonia as an Offshore Financial Center

Estonia - A Global Crypto Destination

Why Choose Estonia as an Offshore Destination?

Estonia has become one of the most prosperous countries in Eastern Europe since its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. It has a unique position, while being in the EU it is also the gateway to Russian and Eastern markets. While the country is fully immersed within EU regulations it has managed to retain much autonomy in its corporate policy making which it has done by having the lowest tax regimes in the EU with 0% taxation on all reinvested profits.

An attractive location between the East and West, several international companies have relocated due to the excellent business environment, stable political system, moderate costs, and liberal economic policies. The country has sought to attract foreign investment which is has done by creating a business environment that is open, friendly and easy to navigate. It has also nurtured and encouraged its digital sector becoming one of the worlds leading centers for digital startups, IT and blockchain technology.

Estonia quickly becoming the e-destination of Europe, due to its public and private efforts to reshape the digital-corporate environment in health care, ID, government services, immigration, as well as tax filing and preparation. Estonia became first country in the world to: use block-chain technology in public services, attempt a national ICO and have a completely digital voting election. It has sought to develop its niche as Europes destination for all things crypto with the launch of its cryptocurrency exchange licences which has gained much global attention.

Is Estonia an offshore Tax Haven?

Well, that depends.. It does offer a low-tax threshold together with quick incorporation procedures, low-registration costs, low-share capital, and you can incorporate remotely, however it is till not entirely free from all taxation and requires transparency and proper accounting records. 

Benefits of Offshore Formation in Estonia

  • Politically stable
  • Free from negative tax haven associations
  • Strong economic growth of 2-8%
  • Transparent form of governance
  • High-level of economic freedom
  • Strong rule of law
  • Low corporate tax system
  • Ease of doing business (#16 in the world)
  • First country to integrate digital services within the system (healthcare, voting, ID)
  • One of the worlds leading in digital innovation and culture
  • Advanced banking sector
  • 2014 launched its e-Residency services for non-Estonians
  • Modern IT industry
  • Simplified taxation system
  • Has a well formed financial services industry
  • Very-low corruption indexes
  • Highest number of digital startups per-person in the world
  • Leading central European country for foreign-direct investment
  • World leading in creating e-government solutions and cyber security
  • First country in the world to use blockchain on a national level
  • #1 the world for internet freedom 
  • Ranked #1 globally for its tax competitiveness index

In-Depth Information about Estonia


Estonia is located in Northern Europe. Half of the country borders the sea and the other half borders Lake Peipus, Russia and Latvia. It is bordered by the Gulf of Finland to the North, the Baltic Sea to the West, Latvia to the South, and Russia to the East. The country covers an area of 45 thousands square kilometers and is a lowland country with much of the country covered by wetlands. There are over 1,500 offshore islands that constitute 9% of the total land.

Political Structure

Estonia is a parliamentary representative democratic republic of a multi party system where the Prime Minister is the head of government and a President with largely ceremonial powers. The political culture and environment is stable, as power has been held by 2-3 parties for many years. The political system of Estonia is governed by a constitution laid out in 1992 that divests the power of government within the hands of its citizens.

Parliament or Riigikogu has 101 members and are elected to four year terms. The Government is formed by the Prime Minister who is approved of by the parliament. The government has executive power which is separate from the legislative and judicial branches and maintains a very low corruption index. The country is divided into fifteen counties which have their own administrative subdivisions.

Estonia ranks sixth in the world for its press freedoms and first in the world for its liberty index. The country is also ranked first in its internet freedom and tax competitiveness and is seen as one of the more progressive countries within the Eastern Europe.  The country has signed numerous international agreements, is apart of many international trade bodies and is a recent member of the EU. 

Economy and Infrastructure

Estonia is considered a high income country by the World Bank with a GDP (PPP) of US 35,717. The country achieved rapid-growth over the last two-decades and is often  referred to as the Baltic Tiger. In 2001 Estonia adopted the Euro and became the 17th member of the Eurozone. Since 2010 the country has experienced strong economic growth of 2-8%. The country's economy benefits from a transparent system and open informational flows and strong service industry. There is a high-level of economic freedom given to its liberal economy and trade policies, placing it second in Europe. 

There is low public debt, and the budget has been balanced for the last decade. In 2012 it was the only country in the EU to run a surplus. There is a strong rule-of-law and one of the most efficient judicial system in the EU. The economy is very-liberal and open with strong trade-flows too Western Europe and has become a major reciever of foreign investment.

Estonia has a flat-income tax-rate and a competitive commercial banking sector as well as e-Services and mobile-based electronic services that have become a well-known distinction of the economy. Other sectors of the economy are composed of telecommunications, banking, services, electronics, transportation, as well as timber, oil, and foodstuffs.

Population, Language and Culture

There are approximately 1.3 million people living in Estonia with the large majority of people living in urban areas, especially the capital Talinn. The country is largely inhabited by ethnic Estonians 60%, with a large Russian population of 25%. There are representatives of 109 nationalities, with a very heterogeneous capital, while the countryside is largely inhabited by ethnic Estonians. 

Estonia has its own language, which has similarities to Finnish. There are over 109 languages spoken within the country though 90% of people speak Estonian and nearly 30% if people speak Russian. English is widely spoken amongst residents in the capital and is the language of choice for many sectors including banking, business and law. Estonian citizens are generally well-educated and have a strong workforce.

The culture is influenced by Nordic and Baltic traditions as well as Germanic and Finnic touches. Modern Estonia is very liberalized with emphasis on the Protestant work ethic, even though few people are religious, as well as comparable Nordic notions of environmental concern, egalitarian livelihood, self-sufficiency, and social welfare.

Exchange Control

There are no exchange controls in Estonia.

Type of Law

The foundation of the country's legal system is heavily influenced by the Roman-German system as well as other European continental law systems.

Principal Corporate Legislation

Estonia's Corporate legislation is the Company Act 1995 which was amended to fit with EU regulations in 2004.


There is a simplified tax-system with flat rates for personal 20% and corporate taxes 20%. There are no corporate taxation for reinvested profits as well as on any foreign sourced income. Taxation on foreign sourced income is only taxed if/when funds are brought into the country.

Estonia Offshore Formation Structures From Offshore Protection

Click below for more information on an Estonian Cryptocurrency Exchange Licence :