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Offshore DAO: Decentralized Autonomous Organizations Overseas

In this article, we provide an overview of what a Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO) is, how it works, and its potential use cases. We discuss the use of consensus-based systems and smart contracts in DAOs, as well as the role of digital tokens in governance.

Finally, we explore the legal recognition of DAOs, and the various ways to legally structure a DAO in different jurisdictions around the world. 

Table of Contents:

What Is a DAO and How Does it Work?

A Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO) is a type of digital organization that runs on a set of pre-determined programmable rules. DAOs are often built on blockchain technology and utilize consensus-based systems which are used by the organization’s members to collectively make decisions. DAOs can be used for various purposes, such as managing funds, proposing and voting on ideas, and other forms of decision-making.

There are different ways that DAOs can function and in which decisions are made by the organization. All DAOs use some kind of consensus-based mechanism to make decisions, which is done through a “smart-contract” (A smart contract is a self-executing contract with the terms of the agreement written directly into code). The most common type of consensus mechanism is called “Proof of Stake” where members vote with their stake (i.e., locked cryptocurrency) in the DAO. 

DAOs are one element of the broader area known as “Distributed-Ledger Technology” (DLT), which is seen by many as one of the greatest economic innovations of this century. 

The Role of Digital Tokens in DAO Governance 

Digital tokens (of which cryptocurrency is one form), play an important role in the governance of a DAO. These tokens are used to represent the voting power of the DAO members. Each member of the DAO holds a certain number of tokens, which they use to vote on proposals and decisions about how the DAO should operate. The more tokens a member of the DAO has, the more voting power they have. 

This creates an incentive for members to obtain and hold more DAO tokens, because it means they will have a greater say in the decision-making process. Token holders may also earn rewards (similar to dividends) based on the number of tokens they have as well as their participation in DAO governance. Tradeable cryptocurrencies are often used as DAO tokens, which creates a further positive incentive loop for members to help the DAO achieve its goals and progress.

If the DAO is well organised and optimises its decision-making process, the tokens which represent a governance stake are likely to rise in value. This creates further incentive to hold the tokens and add more value to the DAO, and so the process continues.  


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Are DAOs Legally Recognised? 

DAOs are a relatively new concept which means their legal recognition is still unclear and varies depending on the jurisdiction. This can be both a great opportunity and a challenge, depending on the situation at hand. There is currently no universally recognized legal framework for DAOs, and their legal status is still being debated and determined in many countries.

In some jurisdictions, DAOs may be treated as a type of legal entity, such as a corporation or a partnership. In others, they may be considered a form of contract or trust. Despite the lack of a clear legal framework for DAOs, some countries have still issued guidance or regulations for them.

For example, in the United States, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has issued guidance stating that DAOs may be considered securities and therefore subject to securities regulations. In other countries, the legal status of DAOs may be more uncertain, with regulators still working to determine how they should be treated.

Even if a DAO is legally recognized in a specific jurisdiction, it could still face challenges in terms of regulation and compliance. Due to its decentralized nature, a DAO may not have a clear "home base" or central point of control, which can make it difficult for regulators to monitor or enforce compliance.

The Role of Smart Contracts in a DAO

Smart contracts play an important role in the functioning of DAOs. Their utilization allows various processes to be automated, such as voting and decision-making. They are more secure and fair as they exist over a decentralized network and act as a transparent and incorruptible ledger of transactions (including activities such as voting).

They also save time and money; in that they directly allow the rules of the DAO to be enacted without interference or the need for a trusted or paid intermediary. 

Applications of smart contracts in a DAO include:

  1. Proposals and voting: Smart contracts can be used to create and manage proposals and allow members to vote on them. This can include proposals for funding new projects, making changes to the organization's rules and governance structure, etc.
  2. Fund management: Smart contracts can be used to manage and distribute funds within a DAO. This includes the automatic distribution of dividends or rewards to members based on their efforts in the organization, and the automatic execution of financial transactions such as buying and selling of assets.
  3. Token management: Smart contracts can be used to manage the issuance and transfer of digital tokens within a DAO, such as the creation and management of token standards, the issuance of new tokens, and the transfer of tokens between members.
  4. Governance: Smart contracts can be used to implement and manage a DAO's governance structure and decision-making processes. This may include the creation and management of voting systems, and the management of DAO membership and participation.
  5. Compliance: Smart contracts can even be used to automate compliance with legal and regulatory requirements. For example, they could enable automatic reporting of transactions and activities to regulatory authorities.

Overall, the implementation of smart contracts in a DAO can greatly improve efficiency, transparency, and security in various processes. 

Benefits of Forming a DAO Overseas

Forming a DAO overseas can provide numerous benefits, some of which include:


DAOs operate completely autonomously without the problems which come with traditional leadership and hierarchy in the corporate world.

As a decentralized organization, a DAO is not answerable to any one central authority, which allows for greater flexibility and control over its operations. An offshore DAO has even greater autonomy, as it is not burdened by local laws and state pressures. 


DAOs operate on a set of pre-programmed rules, which can be customized to suit the specific needs and goals of an organization. They are also decentralized, which is the key factor that differentiates them from traditional hierarchal firms. As such, they usually consist of many independent individuals and/or small teams, that can enjoy a high degree of fluidity and flexibility in their roles and function within the DAO.

This flexibility can allow for more efficient and effective decision-making processes and alignment of incentives between members and the organization as a whole. However, for this to work, it is crucial that the DAO has an effective benefit-structure and proper incentive mechanisms.

Forming a DAO overseas can further enhance its flexibility, as some countries may have more lenient regulations for DAOs, which can allow for more experimentation and innovation in terms of how the organization operates.

Decentralized Leadership

One of the key features of a DAO is its decentralized leadership structure, which allows for equal participation and decision-making power among all members. This is furthered when a DAO is formed overseas and has its leadership structure spread over multiple jurisdictions (i.e., the DAO is also geographically decentralized).

All this ultimately leads to more democratic and inclusive decision-making processes that is free of the influence of single individuals or state laws.

Access to New Markets and Resources

An overseas DAO provides access to new markets and resources that may not be available locally.

This includes new customers, partners, suppliers, and new sources of funding and investment. 

Tax Benefits

Due to the decentralized and autonomous nature of DAOs, they have the freedom to establish themselves in a jurisdiction with more favourable tax treatment.

These lower taxes ultimately lead to greater retention of profits and higher rewards to members.

Privacy and Security

Forming a DAO overseas can provide greater privacy and security.

Some countries have stronger privacy and data protection laws, which can help to protect the personal information and assets of members.

Is It Always Better to Form a DAO Overseas?

While there are many advantages to forming a DAO overseas, an overseas DAO may also bring some challenges, such as the complexity of navigating different legal and regulatory frameworks and potential issues with compliance.

The reputation of the particular country where the DAO is formed also has a direct effect on the organization's own reputation and therefore its ultimate success, so this becomes an important consideration. 


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Best Offshore Jurisdictions to Set Up a DAO

There are several ideal offshore jurisdictions for starting a DAO. Deciding where to form the DAO depends on the specific goals and needs of the organization. In this article, we will not go into the various pros and cons of each jurisdiction, but just list some of the top jurisdictions that are commonly considered for starting a DAO.

We leave you to further explore each of the relative benefits of these jurisdictions.

For more information on crypto-friendly jurisdictions, refer to the article best crypto-friendly countries.

The top offshore jurisdictions in which to form a DAO include:

  • The Marshall Islands
  • Switzerland
  • Gibraltar
  • Singapore
  • Estonia
  • Malta
  • Cayman Islands
  • Bermuda
  • British Virgin Islands

Let us explore in more detail the case of the Marshall Islands as a particularly unique and favorable country to base a DAO. 

The Marshall Islands are the pioneers in recognizing decentralized autonomous organizations as legal entities.

They passed a new law in 2018 that recognizes DAOs as a new type of legal entity, known as a "limited liability decentralized autonomous organization" (LLDAO). This law provides a legal framework for the formation and operation of DAOs and is therefore an ideal option for organizations that are looking for a jurisdiction that specifically recognizes and supports DAOs.

Under these laws, DAOs enjoy equal rights as LLCs, and gain access to numerous advantages compared to other jurisdictions, which begin with the unique and unrivaled regulatory framework. 

How to Legally Structure a DAO Overseas

Legally structuring a DAO overseas can be a complex process, and it will depend on the specific jurisdiction in which the DAO is formed. That said, there are a few common legal structures that a DAO may take:

  1. Non-profit organization: Often used for DAOs that have a charitable or public benefit purpose. An example of a DAO that has taken this structure is Giveth, a decentralized platform for charitable giving.
  2. Limited Liability Company (LLC): This is a common structure for DAOs that will be generating revenue with the aim to make a profit. Examples of successful DAOs that have used this structure include Gnosis, a prediction market platform, and MakerDAO, a decentralized platform for creating and managing stablecoins. Just because the DAO decides to make use of the LLC structure, does not necessarily mean they are legally recognized as a DAO per se in the jurisdiction in which they incorporate. 
  3. Partnership: A partnership structure is appropriate for DAOs that have a small number of members and require a more flexible governance structure. An example is MolochDAO, a decentralized autonomous organization focused on funding Ethereum infrastructure projects. 
  4. Foundation: A foundation is an organization that is formed by one or more founders to fulfil a specific purpose with the assets in the foundation. They are non-profit organizations. Due to their flexibility, they can make ideal legal structures in which to “package” a DAO.  This legal structure is typically used in jurisdictions like Switzerland and Singapore. An example of a DAO that has taken this structure is the Ethereum foundation, which is a non-profit organization that manages the development and promotion of the Ethereum protocol. 
  5. Without a registered legal entity: It is also possible for a DAO to operate without registering a legal entity. This can be done by creating a smart contract on a blockchain network that governs the rules and operations of the DAO, without the need for a registered legal entity. This approach allows for completely decentralized and autonomous operation of the DAO, and is therefore best suited for organizations that prioritize decentralization and autonomy over traditional legal structures. 


DAOs are still a largely new concept in the corporate and financial world. As such, the laws and regulations related to DAOs and blockchain technology are constantly evolving, and it's important to stay up to date with any changes or developments in the field. 

We have provided some general information on how to structure a DAO overseas and the benefits it can provide. However, it is always recommended to directly consult with legal experts and professionals who have experience in the specific jurisdiction where the DAO will be formed. They will be able to provide the most up-to-date information on whether the jurisdiction is indeed appropriate for the DAO’s specific needs and help to ensure compliance with all relevant laws and regulations.

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*Note for U.S. citizens: US citizens are limited in their tax reduction possibilities due to FATCA and CFC laws. Opening an offshore company can increase privacy and asset protection, but you can not eliminate your taxes without giving up your citizenship. If you are a US citizen you are obligated to pay taxes on all worldwide income. Read more here about FATCA and CFC laws.



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